Melting Point

The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid.

During the melting point, the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium.

The melting point depends on pressure (Usually measured at1 atmosphere).

What does the dictionary say?

Now I’m going to use a dictionary to define “Melting Point”.

The temperature at which a solid substance will melt.

According to wikipedia…

The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium.

The melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at a standard pressure such as 1 atmosphere or 100 kPa.

Table of contents

I will talk about the following topics:

  • What is melting point (definition)
  • Melting point theory
  • Melting point uses
  • How is melting point determined
  • What is melting point depression
  • What causes melting point depression
  • Melting point vs boiling point
  • Melting point vs pressure
  • How is melting point related to inter molecular forces of attraction
  • Melting point unit of measurement
  • How to calculate melting point
  • Melting point equation
  • How to calculate purity from melting point
  • How does melting point determine purity
  • How is mixed melting point used to identify a substance
  • How to determine melting point from phase diagram
  • How to use melting point apparatus
  • How to determine melting point of a molecule
  • How to calculate the melting point of a compound
  • How to determine melting point on periodic table
  • Melting point periodic table trend
  • How to find the melting point of an element
  • How to reduce melting point of materials

What is Melting Point (Definition)

Melting point is the temperature at which the solid and liquid forms of a pure substance can exist in equilibrium.

As heat is applied to a solid, its temperature will increase until the melting point is reached.

When all the solid has melted, additional heat will raise the temperature of the liquid.

Melting point uses

Melting points are often used to characterize organic and inorganic compounds and to ascertain their purity.

The melting point of a pure substance is always higher and has a smaller range than the melting point of an impure substance or, more generally, of mixtures.

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How is melting point determined

The melting point of an organic solid can be determined by introducing a tiny amount into a small capillary tube, attaching this to the stem of a thermometer centered in a heating bath, heating the bath slowly, and observing the temperatures at which melting begins and is complete.

What is Melting Point Depression

Foreign substances in a crystalline solid disrupt the repeating pattern of forces that holds the solid together.

Therefore, a smaller amount of energy is required to melt the part of the solid surrounding the impurity.

This explains the melting point depression (lowering) observed from impure solids.

Tip: Turn on the caption button if you need it. Choose “automatic translation” in the settings button, if you are not familiar to the english language.

What causes melting point depression

Impurities in a solid cause a melting point depression because the impurity disrupts the crystal lattice energies.

Solute particles, because of their different size and shape do not fit into the crystal lattice and interfere with the crystallization process.

Melting point vs boiling point

The main difference between boiling point and melting point is that the melting point is defined as the temperature at which solid and liquid phases are in equilibrium, whereas the boiling point is the temperature at which the vapour pressure of a liquid is equal to the external pressure.

Melting point vs pressure

The melting point will rise with increased pressure

How is melting point related to inter molecular forces of attraction

The stronger the bond, the stronger the inter molecular attraction forces between them are.

A higher amount of heat energy will be required to break these bonds when the inter molecular forces of attraction are strong, and hence the melting point of strong inter molecular forces of attraction will be greater.

How to Calculate Purity From Melting Point

We calculate this by taking the mass of chemical in the sample, divide it by the total mass of the sample, and multiply the result by 100 percent.

An impurity is simply any other substance that isn't the desired one.

If we introduce impurities into a pure sample, we'll lower the melting point.

How does Melting Point Determine Purity

A substance (solid) containing soluble impurities usually melts at a lower temperature than the pure compound.

In general, the smaller the range of melting temperatures, the higher the purity of the sample.

How is mixed melting point used to identify a substance

First, a melting point is taken of the unknown and a tentative identification is made using literature data.

Then the unknown sample is mixed with some authentic sample of the suspected compound and the melting point is taken of the mixture.

If the mixture shows no depression in the melting point, the two compounds almost certainly were the same and the identification of the unknown is confirmed.

If the mixture shows a depression of melting point, the two compounds were not identical.

How to Use Melting Point Apparatus

The most common and most basic method of determination is the capillary method.

This method involves placing the sample in a capillary tube and running an experiment that will heat the sample until it reaches melting point.

The melting point can then be recorded.

How to Reduce Melting Point Of Materials

Water can exist in different states; ice is the solid state of water.

The melting point of pure water ice is 32°F (0°C).

Adding salt — or other substances — to ice lowers the melting point of ice.

Citation

When you need to include a fact or piece of information in an assignment or essay you should also include where and how you found that piece of information (Melting Point).

That gives credibility to your paper and it is sometimes required in higher education.

To make your life (and citation) easier just copy and paste the information below into your assignment or essay:

Luz, Gelson. Melting Point. Materials Blog. Gelsonluz.com. dd mmmm. yyyy. URL.

Now replace dd, mmmm and yyyy with the day, month, and year you browsed this page. Also replace URL for the actual url of this page. This citation format is based on MLA.

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