The vast majority of metal materials subjected to a relatively low tensile stress has a proportionality between the applied voltage and the observed deformation, according to the ratio:
Elastic Modulus Formula
What is Elastic Modulus?
It is a (quotient) relationship between the applied voltage and the resulting elastic deformation.
This module is related to the stiffness of the material or the resistance to elastic deformation, about which I will talk below.
This proportionality ratio was deducted from the (F=k.x).
The constant E is called elastic modulus (but also is known as elastic modulus).
It indicates the stiffness of the material (resistance of the material to the elastic deformation) and depends on the forces and interatomic bonds.
In the International System (Is), the values of E are expressed gigapascal (GPa), as they have very high values.
Examples and Values
For most metals, the elastic modulus varies between 45 GPa (magnesium) and 407 GPa (tungsten).
The values of elasticity modules for materials ceramics are too high.
For polymeric materials, the values of the elasticity are much lower than metallic ones, ranging from 0.007 to 4 GPa.
Below is a table with some examples of materials (temperature environment):
The elastic modulus difference from metals, ceramics and polymers is due to the different types of atomic bonds existing in these three classes of materials.