The vast majority of metal materials subjected to a relatively low tensile stress has a proportionality between the applied force and the observed deformation, according to the ratio:

## Elastic Modulus Formula

Explaining graphically:
Source: USP

## What is Elastic Modulus?

It is a (quotient) relationship between the applied voltage and the resulting elastic deformation.

This module is related to the stiffness of the material or the resistance to elastic deformation, about which I will talk below.

## Origin

This proportionality ratio was deducted from the (F=k.x).

The constant E is called elastic modulus.

It indicates the stiffness of the material (resistance of the material to the elastic deformation) and depends on the forces and interatomic bonds.

In the International System (Is), the values of E are expressed in gigapascal (GPa), as they have very high values.

## Examples and Values

For most metals, the elastic modulus varies between 45 GPa (magnesium) and 407 GPa (tungsten).

The values of elasticity modules for materials such as ceramics are too high.

For polymeric materials, the values of the elasticity are much lower than metallic ones, ranging from 0.007 to 4 GPa.

Below is a table with some examples of materials (temperature environment):
The elastic modulus difference from metals, ceramics and polymers is due to the different types of atomic bonds existing in these three classes of materials.

In addition, the temperature increase tends to decrease the elastic modulus for almost all the materials.

## Influence of Temperature

The elastic modulus tends to decrease with increasing temperature.

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